Derbyshire were bowled out for 84, one ball after they avoided an innings defeat, with Onions taking 5-38 and Anderson 4-29, leaving Keaton Jennings to hit the winning boundary off the first delivery of the visitors’ second innings.
Only Harvey Hosein with 29 from 65 balls offered any meaningful resistance to Anderson and Onions who finished with combined match figures of 17 for 104.
Derbyshire’s head of cricket Dave Houghton said: “It’s the first time we’ve had a real drubbing and they’ve given us a good hiding.
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“I guess if someone said can you prepare the best conditions for real quality swing and seam bowlers to come and bowl in they got exactly that.
“That’s nothing against our groundsman at all, it’s just the weather leading up to this game and the whole game itself were just perfect conditions to bowl in and we were up against two of the best, certainly one is probably the best, in the world at it.”
Everything pointed to an early finish when Derbyshire resumed on 19-4 under the cloud cover which had made Onions and Anderson virtually unplayable the previous evening.
The bat was beaten time after time but Alex Hughes and Hosein managed to survive much to the frustration of Anderson, who saw an inside edge whistle past leg stump and run away to the boundary before a top-edge hook just evaded fine leg.
Onions covered his face when Jennings spilled a chance at first slip when Hughes was on 11 but the miss did not prove costly as three wickets fell in seven balls.
Hughes was the first to go when he edged his 48th delivery low to the right of Dane Vilas to give Anderson his second victim of the innings and three balls later Matt Critchley was lbw aiming to play through mid wicket.
Onions gave way to Saqib Mahmood at the Racecourse End but there was no respite for Derbyshire as Luis Reece edged one that moved away just enough to take the edge and this time Jennings made no mistake.
Anderson had Logan van Beek taken at gully with 16 still needed to make Lancashire bat again, but Hosein had shown tenacity and spared his side the ignominy of an innings defeat before Onions had him caught behind.
Onion then bowled Ravi Rampaul which left Lancashire needing only two runs for a 20 points victory that was achieved with just over five sessions remaining.
Lancashire’s Liam Livingstone said: “They were unplayable at times on that pitch and if they went into the first Test Match as an opening bowling pair I’m sure Australia would struggle.
“They are bowling as well as I’ve seen and the way they bowled in this game was outstanding. Certainly fielding at second slip you feel you are in the game every ball.”